Health and Sanitation Practices and Academic Performance of Grade VI Pupils

The provision of health sanitation is a key development intervention – without it, ill health dominates a life without dignity. Simply having access to sanitation increases health, well-being and economic productivity. Inadequate sanitation impacts individuals, households, communities and countries. Despite its importance, achieving real gains in sanitation coverage has been slow. Achieving the internationally agreed targets for sanitation and hygiene poses a significant challenge to the global community and can only be accomplished if action is taken now. Low-cost, appropriate technologies are available. Effective program management approaches have been developed. Political will and concerted actions by all stakeholders can improve the lives of millions of people in the immediate future.

Nearly 40 percent of the world’s population (2.4 billion) has no access to hygienic means of personal sanitation. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.8 million people die each year from diarrheal diseases, 200 million people are infected with schistosomiasis and more than 1 billion people suffer from soil-transmitted helminthes infections. A Special Session on Children of the United Nations General Assembly (2002) reported that nearly 5,500 children die every day from diseases caused by contaminated food and water because of health and sanitation malpractice.

Increasing access to sanitation and improving hygienic behaviors are keys to reducing this enormous disease burden. In addition, such changes would increase school attendance, especially for girls, and help school children to learn better. They could also have a major effect on the economies of many countries – both rich and poor – and on the empowerment of women. Most of these benefits would accrue in developing nations.

The global community has set ambitious targets for improving access to sanitation by 2015. Achieving these goals will have a dramatic impact on the lives of hundreds of millions of the world’s poorest people and will open the door to further economic development for tens of thousands of communities. Access to adequate sanitation literally signifies crossing the most critical barrier to a life of dignity and fulfillment of basic needs.

This study determined the health and sanitation practices of the Grade VI pupils in selected public schools in the district of Diadi, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. This research undertaking utilized the descriptive correlation method of research to establish the influence of the profile variables on the respondents’ health practices, sanitation practices, and their academic performance, as well as the relationship between health and sanitation practices with academic performance. The following are the significant findings of the study:

Twenty five or 37.31 percent of the respondents are 12 years old; 41 or 61.19 percent are female; 47 or 70.14 percent are Roman Catholics; 22 or 32.84 percent are Ilocano; 20 or 20.89 of the respondents’ fathers reached elementary school level; 21 or 31.34 percent of their mothers are college graduates; 50 or 74.63 percent of their fathers are farmers; 38 or 56.72 percent are housekeepers; 34 or 50.75 percent have family income of 5,000.00 and below; 38 or 56.72 percent have 4 to 6 family members; 36 or 53.73 percent have 2 sanitation facilities; and 42 or 62.69 received 5 immunizations.

Health practices in the school obtained a grand mean of 3.89; 3.90 for health practices in the home; and 3.62 for health practices in the community, all qualitatively described as very satisfactory. The respondents perceived their sanitation practices in the school as very satisfactory with a grand mean of 3.44; also very satisfactory for sanitation practices in the home with 3.55; and again, very satisfactory for sanitation practices in the community, with 3.26 grand mean.

The perceived health practices of the respondents in the home significantly differ when they are grouped according to father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities as evidenced by the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.39, 2.64, 3.19, 3.28, 2.93, 3.18, and 3.19 respectively which are higher than the critical value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, age, gender, mother’s educational attainment, mother’s occupation, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities caused significant differences in the perceived health practices of the respondents in the school as shown by the computed t-test and F-test results of 3.15, 2.03, 2.39, 3.18, 3.16, and 3.74, respectively; all are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. Significant differences were also noted in the respondents’ health practices in the community when they are grouped according to ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income, number of sanitation facilities, and number of immunization received because the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.76, 2.37, 2.41, 3.148, 3.16, 2.79, 3.26, and 3.17 respectively are higher that the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.

There exists a significant difference in the respondents’ sanitation practices in the home when they are grouped according to gender, ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, family monthly income, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities because the computed values of t-test and F-test results of 2.05, 2.79, 2.37, 2.51, 2.78, 3.29, and 3.16 respectively are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. Moreover, gender, ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, family monthly income and number of sanitation practices caused significant variation in the respondents sanitation practices in the school as evidenced by the computed values of 2.15, 2.81, 2.42, 2.87, 2.83, and 3.79 respectively; all are also higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, the respondents perception of their sanitation practices in the community differs when they are grouped according to gender, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income and number of sanitation facilities since the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.06, 2.37, 2.41, 3.17, 3.148, 2.78, and 3.25 respectively are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.

There exists a significant difference in the respondents’ academic achievements when grouped according to gender, as indicated by the computed value of 2.27, which is higher than 1.99 critical values. Father’s and mother’s educational attainment with the computed values of 2.74 and 2.64, respectively, both higher than the critical value of 2.368, and their occupation with 3.17 and 3.27, respectively both higher than the critical value of 3.142 constitute significant variance in the respondents’ academic performance. Family monthly income and number of immunizations received, with the computed values of 2.86 and 3.19, respectively which are higher than the critical values of 2.754 and 3.142, respectively significantly differentiated the respondents’ academic performances. The rest of the variables – age, religion, ethnicity, number of family members, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities do not cause significant differences because the computed values of 2.94, 1.86, 2.71, 2.89, 1.97, and 3.08 respectively were lower than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.

There is very significant relationship between health practices and sanitation practices as evidenced by the computed r-value of 0.72 which is higher than the critical value of 0.241 for 65 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance, indicating high correlation, with a coefficient of determination of 51.84 percent.

There exists a very small positive correlation between health practices and academic performance, as indicated by the computed r-value of 0.238 with an equivalent computed t-value of 2.198 which is higher than the critical t-value of 1.99 for 65 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. The said correlation is significant. Moreover, sanitation practices and academic performance have small positive correlation, as evidenced by the computed r-value of 0.226 with an equivalent computed t-value of 2.07 which is higher than the critical t-value of 1.99 for 65 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. This result is statistically inferred as significant.

Based on the foregoing significant findings, hereunder are the conclusions.

1. The respondents are in their pre-adolescence stage, female, Roman Catholics, Ilocano, have fathers who reached elementary level, mothers who are college graduates, have fathers who are farmers, have mothers who are housekeeper, have low income, belong to medium-sized families, have concrete dwellings, have limited sanitation facilities and adequate immunization received.

2. The respondents also have very satisfactory health practices at home, in the school, and in the community. The same group of respondents has very satisfactory sanitation practices at home, in the school, and satisfactory sanitation practices in the community.

3. The respondents have proficient academic performance.

4. Health and sanitation practices of the respondents differ when they are grouped according to selected profile variables.

5. Academic performance of the respondents differs when they are grouped according to gender, parents’ occupation, family income and number of immunizations received, but not with age, ethnicity, number of family members, type of dwelling and number of sanitation facilities.

6. Very significant relationship exists between health practices and sanitation practices of the respondents.

7. Very significant correlation exists between the respondents’ health and sanitation practices and their academic performance.

Premised on the above-cited findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are offered:

1. Although the respondents demonstrate very satisfactory health and sanitation practices, these should still be enhanced and sustained by implementing various health and sanitation programs.

2. The school, as the lead agency, should orchestrate its efforts with other government agencies, such as the DOH, DSWD, DENR, LGU and non-government sectors for the sustainability of health and sanitation programs.

3. Activities geared towards sustainability of health and sanitation must be designed/conceptualized, such as conduct of search for healthiest pupil, most sanitary classroom/school and should be expanded to the home and community.

4. The scheme of having teacher-coordinators for each purok should be strengthened so that the health and sanitation thereat be improved and maintained.

5. Since there is significant relationship between health and sanitation practices and pupils’ academic performance, schools must spearhead the provision of health and sanitation facilities to keep pupils always reminded of their health and sanitation practices.

Men’s Pubic Hair – Start Hair Removal Process For Better Health and Hygiene

Removing pubic hair completely has become a popular trend among men. Most of them find it more comfortable after removing the unwanted hair. To be frank, sometimes, it is hard for men to take good care “down there”. Excessive pubic hair is the root cause of having body odor. In order to keep the pubic area clean, it will be good if you can remove the hair from time to time.

For those who haven’t started the hair removal process before, I am here to share with you some tips to achieve the best result.

• Honestly speaking, there is a wide range of hair removal techniques and products available for men. For people who find it troublesome to shave and trim the hair frequently, they can choose to get rid of their hair permanently. Electrolysis is one of the permanent pubic hair removal techniques which is commonly used by many people.

• Most of the men do not choose to remove their pubic hair permanently because they are uncertain. In the point of view of some people, they prefer to have some hair because they want the hair to protect their genitals. In fact, this is not right. If you haven’t tried before, it will be good for you to start shaving the sensitive area first before deciding a permanent removal.

• Trimming and shaving the pubic hair can be extremely easy and fast. What you need to know is the right techniques of shaving. You should not shave without softening your skin and hair. Hence, before you shave, you need to take hot bath and apply hair conditioner or shaving cream to keep the hair soft and wet. Applying the shaving cream is a must as it ensure smoother shave. In order to delay the hair growth process, you are suggested to apply wax. Although it is a bit painful when you apply wax, the pubic hair will not grow back so fast. It will only grow after 2 weeks.

• In order to keep yourself clean and tidy, you are reminded to rinse your pubic area with water after shaving so that you can clear all the unwanted hair. Having skin irritation is unavoidable for those who first shave their pubic hair. You may feel itchy and you tend to scratch the sensitive area. It is not right for you to do so because you may get hurt. Hence, in order to reduce the itch, you are advised to apply aloe gel or talcum powder every day. Bear in mind that even if you have got rid of all the hair, you still need to clean your pubic area careful when you take shower.

To sum up, pubic hair seems to be purposeless and unwanted. You are advised to treat pubic hair removal as a hygiene measure. You should make up your mind and start removing it from today onwards. You can choose any of the removal techniques mentioned above.

Alternative Wrinkle Prevention – Proper Health and Hygiene to Get Rid of Aging Signs

What are the causative factors?

There are numerous factors that could contribute a lot to the development of this natural signs of aging called wrinkles and we shall look at a few of them.

Free radicals from the sun’s ultra violet rays the cause the degeneration of collagen, which is a protein found in the skin that helps to keep it elastic and health looking. The other source of these free radicals is air pollution and of course cigarette smoke.
Natural development stages like menopause which causes a reduction of some hormones in the body. It is a known fact that when estrogen is in low supply like during menopause then the elasticity of the skin is greatly affected.
Everyday unavoidable facial muscle use like smiling and frowning can also lead to sagging of the facial muscles because of the effect of gravity on the loose muscles.

How Wrinkles Form

One of the effects of age on our skins is that the cells in the epidermis become thin and less able to stick to each other. This makes your skin thinner and drier and the effect is that your cells will sub-divide more slowly reducing the seed of the ever day repair of the injured and replacement of dead cells. When it comes to the inner layer called the dermis, the thinning hampers the production of collagen which now reduces the elasticity of the skin.

Foods that can fight the effects of the aging process

There are foods that are known to fight wrinkles because they are high in antioxidants and will counteract the decrease in elasticity, firmness and collagen in your skin that is simply reacting to the aging process.

Tomatoes: they are an excellent food in this fight we are looking at. They contain lycopene that is known to decrease the possibility of getting skin cancer.
Red pepper: They are loaded with Vitamins A and E together with bioflavonoids which are good in moisturizing and healing the skin in case of injuries.
Kales: They are rich in antioxidants and also contain lots of iron that increases the supply of oxygen to the skin and the important Vitamin A that wards off premature aging.
Beets and carrots: they together with other red and dark orange vegetables are very goos foods for your skin as well.
Salmon: Salmon contains the rich omega -3 fatty acids that help lubricate the skin and can also reduce inflammation.
Water: We cannot over emphasize the importance of taking pure clean water in the correct amounts. It is recommended that you take between for and eight glasses of water every day to keep your skin clean and healthy.

With these few simple procedures you will help your body maintain good health and deal with wrinkles if not keep them at bay as long as you possibly can.

Related Articles

Top rated Wrinkle Product Reviews [http://www.wrinklepage.com/product-reviews/].

Wrinkle Causes-Prevention [http://www.wrinklepage.com/causes-prevention/].

Your Dental Health Care – Make Your Teeth A Priority As Part of Overall Good Health and Hygiene

Dental health is more important than ever, and you can make your experience with your dentist a more positive and rewarding one. Dental health is just a part of our overall health and wellness, so think about taking care of your teeth on a daily basis. Watch what you are eating, brush and floss twice each day, and make visits to your dentist a regular part of your life for optimal results.

Everything you eat or drink must pass through your teeth and mouth first. If there are foods that are difficult to chew, such as nuts or seeds, certain types of meats, or even some vegetables, they will lead to added wear and tear on your tooth enamel. Over time this will cause a wearing away or type of erosion that can be damaging. Also, be careful with chewy candy and nougats that can break or chip your teeth or loosen crowns or other dental work you have had done in the past. Remember that coffee, tea, blueberries, and other food items will permanently stain your teeth over time.

Brushing and flossing twice a day, every single day, is your best possible hedge against tooth decay and other dental health problems. Dentists like to joke that you only need to floss the teeth you intend to keep, but there is much truth to this statement. Keep a toothbrush, tooth paste, and floss with you at all times to make this even easier. This is a habit that you can turn into a permanent part of your daily health and hygiene routine that will have lasting benefits for the remainder of your life. Habits take about 21 days to set into place, so get started today and see what your dentist says at your next visit.

Your dentist is your friend. We are caring professionals who want to see you have success when it comes to caring for your teeth and gums. Schedule an appointment and ask questions about anything you do not understand. Your adult set of teeth must last you for the rest of your life, so take care of each tooth you still have as though it were a valuable treasure.

You can see that dental health and hygiene is a serious matter. Learn as much as you can about taking care of your teeth, and think about your food choices in regards to your teeth. A healthy smile can be worth a million dollars when it comes to self esteem and confidence, so make this a priority in your life.